Why should root canals (endodontics) be treated?

What is a

root canal?

Anatomically, the tooth consists of a crown and a root. The crown of the tooth is the part that is located above the gums, and the root is located in the thickness of the bone. The vascular-nerve bundle enters the tooth at the very top of its root or roots. From the place where the nerve enters the pulp chamber (the cavity that is located inside the tooth) along the entire length of the tooth are narrow canals - these are the root canals of the tooth.

Why treat root canals?

The pulp (nerve), like any organ, responds with inflammation in response to irritation.

The main cause of inflammation of the nerve tissue of the tooth is carious lesions. With the progression of caries and the destruction of enamel, bacteria penetrate the dentin. Deep damage reaching the dentin allows bacteria to penetrate the tooth pulp and cause inflammation of the pulp. Once inside the tooth, the bacteria begin to multiply actively. This disrupts the normal functioning of the tooth and causes discomfort or pain. The body alone can not solve this problem, as bacteria not only destroy the tooth but also destroy its defense system: blood vessels are no longer able to supply special protective cells that can fight infection. Therefore, we must get rid of such a sick nerve.

Objectives of root canal treatment

Endodontic therapy is basically a procedure to clean the root canals (the part that was originally filled with nerve tissue). Cleaning of root canals is performed in order to remove bacteria in them and prevent the spread of infection to bone or soft tissues. At the same time, three goals will be achieved:

  1. Removal of bacteria that have accumulated inside the tooth.
  2. Removal of nerve tissue and all other organic waste.
  3. Tightly close and fill the root canals with filling materials to prevent the penetration of bacteria.

Stages of endodontic therapy

Endodontic therapy consists of the following stages: anesthesia, isolation of the tooth from oral fluid and bacteria in the mouth, providing access to the nerve area, cleaning the root canals, and root canal fillings. In our clinic, all actions are performed under the control of an operating microscope.

Anesthesia is performed before root canal treatment. In order for the patient not to feel unpleasant sensations associated with the injection and the spread of anesthetic solution (anesthetic) during anesthesia, a high concentration of anesthetic gel is applied to the needle puncture site. Thus, the process of anesthesia is completely painless.

Root canal access

Before cleaning the root canals, the dentist must ensure good access to the root canals. Young patients have greater access because their pulp chamber is large. And the teeth of the elderly have a smaller dental cavity.

Access to the front teeth is from the inside of the tooth to the rear teeth - from the chewing surface.

Preparation (cleaning) of root canals

Root canal cleaning involves machining and disinfection (we know that many bacteria accumulate in the root canals). At the stage of cleaning the root canal, it is important to remove bacteria and pulp tissue.

Mechanical treatment of root canals is carried out using special tools. These tools are very similar to straight needles and have a certain length, size, and surface. The dentist treats the root canals with such tools, moving up and down the tooth canals and at the same time performing rotational movements.

The main step in the treatment of root canals is to determine their length. This is what the apex locator and x-ray are for. Disinfection of root canals is carried out with the help of special disinfectants.

After a thorough cleaning of the root canals, we can begin to seal these canals.

Root canal filling

The success of root canal fillings is largely determined by the quality of previous endodontic manipulations and mainly determines the outcome of treatment.

The main requirement of this stage is the sealing of root canals. The canals are dried before filling. They use gutta-percha and paste to fill the root canals.

After the treatment of the root canal, we begin the restoration of the tooth. Restoration of teeth after endodontic therapy is carried out in several ways:

  • filling with composite materials (suitable when we have more than 60% of our own tooth tissue)
  • ceramic fillings or crowns

The fact is that in many cases, endodontic examination occurs when the tooth is severely damaged. Teeth in this state become brittle. Therefore, in most cases, after an endodontic examination to strengthen the tooth, such a tooth has to be hidden under a crown or other ceramic filling.

Ceramic fillings (inlays, overlays, overlays) or ceramic crowns are used to strengthen damaged teeth when the tooth cannot be saved with a photocomposite filling (when the tooth is damaged by more than 40%). A ceramic filling or crown closes or completely hides a damaged tooth. The crown not only supports the damaged tooth but also improves its aesthetic properties. Implants and dentures are used to replace lost teeth. Implants replace one or more teeth and can also be used to install complete or partial dentures.